The Faculty/Academic Staff Forum highlights research performed by UW-Eau Claire faculty and staff. It has been in session since 1992. More recently, we have hosted our colleagues from UW-Eau Claire-Barron County and the Mayo Clinic, our research partner. Some Forum presentations are recorded, included below.
Eric Torres, Education Studies
See how student researchers grapple with ethical dilemmas as they narrate their global experience and choose to represent the experience of the self not in isolation but in relation to global others. The challenge is translating increased awareness about race, culture, intercultural relations, language diﬀerence, power and identity in the global commons into eﬀective teaching practices conducive to the development of individual global competencies, institutional global capacities, and a critical global community.
Dalete Mota, Nursing
The most common way to administer intravenous chemotherapy around the world is by peripheral catheters. A frequent complication of this route of chemotherapy infusion is phlebitis (inﬂammation of vein characterized by pain, edema, hyperemia, hyperthermia and/or a palpable ﬁbrous cord). This session will describe the results of a research conducted in Brazil during an international fellowship immersion program (Summer 2019).
Mel Kantor, Health Sciences and Robin Miller, McIntyre
Academics love to hate Wikipedia. Undergraduates are conditioned to avoid referencing it, with warnings that it is unreliable or false. Nonetheless, Wikipedia is highly indexed by Google and many people refer to Wikipedia entries before any other source of information. Improving Wikipedia articles with current, credible information is a small but meaningful way to make the world a better place. Editing a Wikipedia article requires students to evaluate information, synthesize classroom material and appropriate scholarly literature, and communicate for a general audience. Using tools provided by Wiki Education, we have collaborated for three years to incorporate a Wikipedia project into Epidemiology (ENPH 450). We will share bibliometric data to show the outcome of student contributions and survey data to assess students’ attitudes, and we will describe how the assignment has evolved.
Sarah Vitale, Geology
Phosphorus loading in Wisconsin is responsible for signiﬁcant lake eutrophication throughout the state, with severe societal and economic impacts. Historically, phosphorous source has been attributed to agricultural inputs delivered by surface water runoﬀ; however, ongoing investigations at UW-Eau Claire suggest that phosphorus occurs in high concentrations in groundwater, and may originate from both agriculture and naturally-occurring phosphorus in the bedrock. Understanding the potential role of groundwater in lake eutrophication is critical for eﬀective lake management and land use practice regulations.
Kristen Benedini, Criminal Justice
This study uses prospective longitudinal data project to assess the relationships between childhood physical abuse/sexual abuse and adolescent substance use. Whether there are gender diﬀerences in these direct and indirect relationships is also addressed. Note: Due to SD card errors, the first few slides were not recorded. Here is a Benedini Slideshow to Benedini's full slideshow.
Mike Carney, Academic Affairs
This presentation will outline the UWEC-Mayo collaborative research agreement and how we can help connect faculty with potential Mayo collaborators, and describe the overall proposal submission and review process. There will also be time for Q and A.
Jeanette Olsen and Colleagues, Nursing
Incivility is a problem in academic as well as health care and other work environments. It negatively affects performance, well-being, the organizational culture, and patient outcomes. This session will describe how a team of faculty and students used an Action Research framework to identify incivility as an issue in nursing education and develop a quality improvement educational program to equip students and faculty with skills for responding to incivility in both academic and practice settings. Examples of teaching strategies and learning activities used in the project that could be adapted by other departments and organizations will be shared.
Joe Wildenberg, Mayo Clinic
From medicine to self-driving cars, “Artificial Intelligence” has continued to over-promise and under-deliver. Focused algorithms in image processing are finally starting to augment a physician’s ability to provide more accurate, timely and (eventually) cost-effective healthcare. Come see examples of computers and image-intensive physicians working together – both existing tools and those on the horizon.
Robert Lodge, Geology
Northern Wisconsin has one of the largest unmined copper-zinc-lead-gold-silver districts in the world with several large and economically valuable mineral deposits that were discovered in the 1960’s and 70’s. Wisconsin’s “Prove it First” mining law prevented most of these deposits from becoming a mine and many companies have left the state. However, competitive exploration by companies and state legislation that doesn’t require donation of complete exploration records has resulted in a fragmented or completely lost record of geology of these deposits. Student-faculty research over the past 5 years has begun to “revive” our knowledge of the geology of these resources at a critical time when state mining laws are changing. This presentation summarizes the results of these research efforts and why this research is important for mineral exploration investment in the state.
Sue Patrick, UW-Eau Claire-Barron County
At the beginning of 1930, Rice Lake, Wisconsin, a “city” of about 5,000 people, had at least 15 stores that sold groceries. Most were locally owned, but three were chains. Mining the advertisements from these grocers, as they were published in the weekly Rice Lake Chronotype between January 1929 and December 1933, allows tracking of the onset of the Great Depression. This presentation will focus on a few products, such as Gold Medal Flour, Hills Brothers Coffee, Proctor and Gamble Soap, and Van Camps Pork and Beans, as well as beef roast. In addition, articles about the stores and their owners or managers, including information about stores going out of business or being sold, help round out the picture. This presentation will look at the rate of decline and the size of the decline in prices.
Kirstin Rossi, Special Education
Faculty Global Citizenship Opens Doors for an Inclusive Bi-Lingual Society: Research Collaboration Provides Increased Access and Decreased Barriers for Preschool Children with Disabilities in an English Immersion Program
This presentation will focus on the process of building relationships with international partners through faculty-led, student immersion trips beyond the high impact practice for students into additional collaborative research opportunities for faculty leaders and partners. Discussion of the process, implementation, continued work, and positive impact of our research on increasing access within the Czech Republic for preschool children with disabilities within an English immersion program will be discussed.
Ming-Li Hsieh, Political Science
Despite Routine activity theory (RAT) has subsequently been applied to
predictions of predatory criminal or victimization events, little is known about
whether RAT could address automatic teller machine (ATM) hacking in a virtual
space. The current study applies RAT in order to examine a high-profile case of
European hackers programming ATMs in Taipei to “spit out” cash netting the
thieves $2.6 million dollars. The results indicate that the Taiwanese case is well
covered by the doctrine of RAT. Moreover, this study bolstered the neo-ideology of
“cannikin law” within cyber crime.
Emily Elsner-Twesme, Business Communication
Want to better motivate your employees or students? Motivating language theory can help! Dissertation results from a survey and training experiment will be discussed. Participants will also learn about motivating language theory - and how this language could be applied when communicating with staff and students. Practice time and handouts will be provided!
Tim Nelson, Mayo Clinic
This presentation will address the current state-of-the-art for pediatric congenital heart disease and the emerging applications for stem cells and regenerative medicine. We will discuss the rationale for why stem cells and regenerative medicine may be the future for rebuilding congenital heart diseases. We will conclude with updated information on the ongoing clinical trials that are aiming to establish a new treatment paradigm for congenital heart disease. Recorded Nov. 7, 2018.
Ezra Zeitler, Geography and Anthropology
Team names and mascots representing high school sports teams and other activities play a central role in galvanizing communities through a collective sense of place and pride. There are nearly 22,000 public and private high schools in this country, and 1,493 use controversial race-based team names and mascots relating to Indigenous People or the Confederate States of America. This presentation highlights the locations and characteristics of these schools and utilizes a content analysis of imagery documented in their halls, gyms, and athletic ﬁelds, to suggest that these hegemonic spaces promote ideologies that have no place in our nation’s learning environments. Recorded Oct. 21, 2018.
John Stewart, Music and Theatre Arts
Current research on programming trends in professional orchestras and college bands has raised an awareness of a need to program compositions writien by living composers and historically underrepresented composers (O’Bannon, 2015; Stewart, 2017). With this in mind, there is a need for teacher-conductors to evaluate current programming practices to meet the needs of the 21st Century Music Educator. In this session, we will look at programming trends of the UW - Eau Claire Concert Bands, discuss ways to provide more diversity in programming, programming ideas, and learn how we are working towards programming more compositions by historically underrepresented composers. Recorded Sept. 19, 2018.
Bob Nowlan, English
In my teaching and scholarship I connect critical theory with cultural practices and social activities exercising substantial inﬂuence, impact, and power throughout a great many people’s lives. In my own life, and that of countless others, engagement with popular music has proven extraordinarily compelling. I have to date taught seven upper level English and Honors classes focused on popular music as cultural studies, the last four focused on exploring and inquiring into connections between ‘the cultural phenomenon of [pioneering Manchester, England post-punk musicians] Ian Curtis and Joy Division’ on the one hand and signiﬁcant issues of recurrent concern in modern to contemporary critical, especially social, theory on the other hand. In this presentation I address how and why I have long found the life and work of Ian Curtis and Joy Division immensely meaningful. Recorded Sept. 12, 2018.
Darrell Newton, Academic Affairs
Within this presentation, I address cultural representations within media via a BBC handbook for West Indian settlers during the postwar era. The Going to Britain booklet addresses the "proper manner" in which one lives in England, including an acceptance of racism, and squalid living conditions. The forward reads that the publication does not "set out to dissuade or persuade…it merely tries to give the facts about the difficulties which you will encounter in the United Kingdom," a distinctly negative subtext. The hegemonic power of the organization thereby influenced the self-definition of these citizens, creating corrective behavior, and Foucaultian self-policing. Recorded April 11, 2018.
Colleen Duffy, Mathematics
In this talk I will give an overview of the research project my students and I have been working on the past several years. I will focus on how I have been able to involve students in my work when the topic itself is advanced. Generally speaking we study the structures of algebras arising from the Hasse graphs (2-D representation of the numbers of vertices, edges, faces, etc. of the object) of polytopes, such as the n-dimensional hypercube. By looking what faces are fixed under the symmetries of the object, we can determine the structure of the algebra associated with them. I will give the history of the interest in these algebras, describe how I have been able to get students involved, and then describe what work has been done by them. Recorded March 28, 2018.
Melissa Coolong-Chaffin, Psychology
The Academic Intervention Clinic (AIC) provides reading and math intervention services to children in local schools and on campus during the summer. The mission of the AIC is three-fold: to provide high quality intervention services to local children, to provide high quality learning experiences for undergraduate students, and to provide high quality learning and leadership experiences for graduate students. This presentation will describe how research and service activities can be used to prepare students for graduate school and careers. Data from student surveys and post-graduation employment/continuing education status will be shared. Recorded March 14, 2018.
William Miller, Accounting and Finance
The Giving Voice to Values (GVV) framework created by Mary Gentile (2010) is a post-decision-making framework (and complete curricular offering) focusing on resolving ethical conflict by encouraging individuals to act on their values. While GVV has been adopted by over 1,000 institutions (colleges, universities and businesses), very little empirical research has been conducted as to its efficacy. This presentation will provide an overview of the findings of Dr. Miller's sabbatical project surrounding the efficacy of GVV. Recorded March 7, 2018.
Jessica Miller, Languages
The people of Arnaudville, Louisiana, have come together in the past ten years to highlight their Cajun French identity by tying it to local art. This group effort successfully managed to bring together diverse –and sometimes politically divided –people to work toward a common goal: highlighting what makes Arnaudville special in order to help their town in disrepair. I will describe this process, known as creative placemaking, explain how Cajun French was used as one of the catalysts, and share my field observations. Recorded Feb. 21, 2018.
Thomas Sather, Communication Sciences and Disorders
Twitter presents unique opportunities to support direct student learning in the undergraduate and graduate classroom. Twitter is a growing source of academic, instructional and content-specific curation, and students have opportunities to access a variety of resources, in a unique medium, with unprecedented recency. This interactive presentation will review lessons learned over the course of one year of direct implementation of Twitter in the classroom. Outcomes, as well as barriers and facilitators, will be reviewed as will implications for future use. This presentation is appropriate for all attendees regardless of Twitter expertise or familiarity. Recorded Feb. 14, 2018.
Eric Jamelske, Economics
This presentation will identify two important economic issues and outline research efforts to provide data and information to stimulate dialogue regarding how to improve these situations. Each issue will be briefly described leading to research questions for each issue. Additionally, this presentation will outline how I employ teams of interdisciplinary students in collaboration with community partners and international partners to generate data for investigation. The presentation will conclude with a glimpse of some of our most recent results for each project followed by discussion. Recorded Nov. 8, 2017.
Brent Opall, Management and Marketing
It has become common practice in management education to use simulations to illustrate the "real world" of business. This research presentation examines student learning using course simulations, and whether providing students a second chance at the simulation will improve reflection and understanding within a strategic management course. Although the research falls in the field of Management this session will be of interest to anyone who uses course simulations or are curious as to the impact on student learning of providing 'second chance.' Recorded Nov. 1, 2017.
Ken Pereira, Music and Theatre Arts
Dr. Kenneth J. Pereira, Assistant Professor of Music and Stage Director of the UWEC's 2017 production of Sweeney Todd, will share about the creative and collaborative process of bringing this epic piece to the UWEC stage. Issues of genre will be explored in addition to the ins and outs of the production and the joys and challenges of working with undergraduate singing actors. Recorded Oct. 25, 2017.
Cyril Wilson, Geography and Anthropology
This study employs geospatial technology to characterize land use/land cover (LULC) in a primate city and two lower-ranked cities in Sierra Leone with the overarching goal of elucidating changes in LULC conditioned by civil conflict. The study demonstrated that civil conflict has the capacity to trigger notable growth in urban agricultural land in a primate city, while the expansion of residential and industrial/commercial lands is more prominent in a lower-ranked city. The study further revealed that population expansion does not necessarily result in significant growth in residential area in a primate city that has experienced civil conflict. Recorded Oct. 18, 2017.
Der-Fa Lu, Nursing
Healing Touch is a nursing intervention which utilized human biofield energy as a tool for healing. The practitioner sets intention for the client's highest good and healing. With this intention and loving heart center energy, the energy flow goes from the universe to the practitioner and then to the client. This is similar to Reiki, Traditional Chinese medicine (Gi, life force) an Ayurvedic medicine (India, science of life). There are about 20 different techniques in Healing Touch that are organized by a group of holistic nurses. Dr. Lu is a certified Healing Touch practitioner and Healing Touch level 1 instructor. Dr. Lu will share her various clinical studies and results in applying Healing Touch to various clinical populations. There are older adults with joints disease, cognitive impairments, and under went bone marrow transplants. Recently, Dr. Lu and her research team completed a pilot study for implementing Healing Touch training to nursing home staff for pain management. Recorded Sep. 27, 2017.
Eric Kasper, Political Science
An examination of the 1787 Constitutional Convention and subsequent ratification debates reveal that the Framers emphasized five factors when deliberating over the structure of judicial appointments: nominee quality, nominee political beliefs, nominee representativeness, presidential/Senate checks and balances, and public input and feedback. The contentiousness that sometimes accompanies Supreme Court confirmation is something that the Framers expected and that can serve the important role of helping us to reevaluate how we interpret the Constitution itself. Recorded Mar. 15, 2017.
José Alvergue, English
This talk addresses the impact of poets of color, and transnational poets whose formal innovations participate in a growing narrative of dissatisfaction, contestation, and/or outright ambivalence towards the cultural archives through which an American poetry, lyric in particular, is reified as the collective voice of an American people. Recorded Mar. 8, 2017.
Jamie O'Connor, Kinesiology
LGBTQ students, who are coping with sexual identity development, are not only lacking protection and support from physical education teachers but from other social-ecological entities such as their peers, schools, and families (Morrison &L'Heureux, 2001). Given that physical education is one of the primary school contexts in which students are supposed to learn health-enhancing behaviors, it is critical for scholars and practitioners to understand how peer harassment impacts marginalized students within those classes. Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to qualitatively explore how LGBTQ college students perceive bullying, homophobic and other, within their prior physical education experiences. Recorded Feb. 15, 2017.
Robert Gough, History, Emeritus and Greg Kocken, Library
Building Excellence is a new history of UWEC, written as part of the Centennail celebration and replacing the existing 40-year old history. The forum will first discuss how the project was a cross-campus collaboration of person and offices. It will then explain how the problems that it raised in research and writing are similar to the general problems encountered by historians, especially in writing institutional history. It will illustrate this point by making specific comparisons between the new work, Building Excellence, and the existing 40-year work. Recorded Feb. 1, 2017.
Debra Hofmann, Nursing
The use of acupressure in the treatment of post-operative nausea and vomiting evolved from a research study in a Midwestern acute care hospital. This presentation will discuss how a distressing patient phenomenon of unrelieved post-operative nausea and vomiting led to an evidence-based intervention now used hospital-wide with improved patient outcomes. Recorded Nov. 9, 2016.
Ryan Hardt, Computer Science
Higher interactivity in online lectures has been shown to improve learning; however, most online lecture environments lack user interaction features that are tightly integrated with the lecture, which complicates the learning process. SPOCK (Small Private Online Course Keeper) is an online lecture environment intended for use with SPOCs (Small Private Online Courses). It is distinguished by (1) its tight integration between timeline-based lecture content and anonymous student comments, (2) its use of gamification to encourage and assess student interaction, (3) and its loose coupling with lecture videos, which may be referenced from other websites like YouTube. Recorded Oct. 26, 2016.
Nancy Hanson-Rasmussen, Management and Marketing
This research presentation focuses on the environmentally sustainable practices of businesses that voluntarily participate in a community based green business initiative. Through real-life experiences of business managers and owners, the study explores decisions regarding practices to try, practices to embrace, and practices to discontinue. Recorded Oct. 19, 2016.
Victoria Rosin, Education Studies
A strong focus on literacy and numeracy in elementary schools has diminished the time devoted to teaching science in both the USA and New Zealand.This comparative survey study reviews pre-service elementary teachers’ perceptions of science teaching during their practicum placements and potential areas for preparation improvements. Recorded Oct. 12, 2016.
Mary Beth Leibham, Psychology
Self-compassion refers to the ability to treat oneself with care and concern when considering personal inadequacies, mistakes, and failures. Numerous studies (e.g., Neff, 2009a, 2009b, 2009c;Neff &McGehee, 2010) have demonstrated a link between self-compassion and psychological well-being, including happiness, conscientiousness, optimism and decreased anxiety, depressive symptomatology, and rumination. This presentation will provide an overview of the research on this construct particularly as it relates to college students' psychological well-being and resilience. The results and current directions of a faculty-student collaborative project exploring UWEC students' levels of self-compassion will also be discussed. Recorded Sep. 28, 2016.
Matthew Meyer, Philosophy and Religious Studies
This presentation gives a philosophical account for why our perception of time in nature is different than in the built world. It begins by reviewing the findings of recent psychological studies which show the benefits of spending time in nature including slowing down time, reducing impulsivity, stress reduction, and others. I then give a philosophical explanation of the difference between “clock time” and “natural time”. I will conclude by showing that many of the above benefits we receive from being in nature have less to do with nature’s effect on our thoughts and more to do with its direct effect on our body. In other words, nature encourages us to be and think in a different way than we do in the built world. Recorded Sep. 21, 2016.
Robert Gough, History, Emeritus
Given their youth and lack of experience with voting, UWEC students have always been "persuadables" regarding their choices in presidential elections. Therefore, their partisan allegiances have tended to change from election to election and not always correlate closely with state and national patterns. Issues, personalities, generational affiliations, and campus-level concerns have been among the factors that have influenced their partisanship. Recorded Sep. 14, 2016.
Mohammad Alasagheirin, Nursing
This presentation will focus on the impact of resettlement and immigration on the health of immigrant and refugees from North Africa. The presentation will mainly discuss the physical and biological consequences of resettlement and environmental exposures on human health. Special attention will be directed toward children's and adolescents' health. Recorded Mar. 9, 2016.
Laura Dunbar, Music Education
Self-regulatory behavior is discussed consistently in the field of education. Teaching students to plan ahead, organize, and inhibit action are just a few of the typical facets of concern; however, these skills can be challenging to develop. This presentation will make connections between the development of self-regulation and the few studies currently in the literature implicitly or explicitly using music to enhance self-regulation skills. These skills include the internalization of standards and concepts while reinforcing motor, social, and cognitive skills through modeling and emulation. The current research base, although limited, shows the potential for children to develop self-regulatory behaviors through studying music. Recorded February 24, 2016.
Pamela Forman, Sociology, and Ellen Mahaffy
A documentary film is a vehicle for "seeing" a transformational process. We taught a summer LGBTQ Studies course that confronted students with sexual identities and politics in San Francisco. In 2013 the self-proclaimed Powerful Queen Warriors, a group of three students, learned about the FAIR Act, a law that mandates the integration of LGBTQ material into California's public education curriculum. By capturing the insights that make an immersion course both a vexing and powerful learning experience, we illustrate the importance of getting students to work together outside of a classroom. Photographs by Ellen Mahaffy. Recorded February 17, 2016.
Chris Floyd, Biology
The yellow-bellied marmot - a large, burrowing ground squirrel related to the woodchuck - is typically associated with cool, high-elevation habitats in the Rocky Mountains and Sierra Nevada. However, this species is also found in relatively warm, low-elevation sites in Nevada and other locations in the Great Basin. We searched for marmots at 18 sites in Nevada where the species was previously documented by E.R. Hall during 1929-1935. Contrary to our expectations, given the substantial climatic warming that has occurred in the Great Basin over the last several centuries, we found marmots living at almost every site that we surveyed. Recorded February 10, 2016.
John Evans, Political Science
According to the text of the Constitution, the Fourth Amendment protects persons, houses, papers, and effects from unreasonable searches. This leaves open questions such as: What is “unreasonable?” What is a “search?” And, where does Fourth Amendment protection apply? Answers to these questions depend upon theoretical perspectives to the Fourth Amendment. In Katz v. US, the Court adopted the theory that Fourth Amendment protections extend beyond persons, houses, papers, and effects to places where people have a “reasonable expectation of privacy.” Decisions in recent cases involving technology such as Riley v. CA also depend upon a theoretical perspective to the Fourth Amendment. Can the “reasonable expectation of privacy” framework address new areas of privacy involving technology? Developments in technology force us to look at the very origins and philosophy of the idea of privacy. We will explore implications of these and other technology cases that intersect the theory of privacy upon which the Fourth Amendment rests. Recorded Nov. 11, 2015.
Debbie Elledge, Communication Sciences and Disorders
Existing research suggests that neurotypical individuals who read fiction have higher levels of empathy than those who do not read fiction. A predominant characteristic of people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is the inability to understand the perspective of others (Theory of Mind) which also impairs the ability to experience empathy for others. This survey research examines the current reading habits and empathy levels of individuals with ASD and explores the potential of incorporating fiction reading into interventions to increase Theory of Mind and empathy. Recorded Oct. 28, 2015.
Patricia Cleary, Chemistry
Ozone is measured at the surface of the planet because too high of concentrations contribute to adverse health outcomes and ecosystem damage. Many ozone measurements take place at sites over land; therefore, the Great Lakes pose as unique areas where ozone abundances are higher yet few regular measurements occur. We developed a measurement strategy over Lake Michigan on the Lake Express Ferry, and compare those measurements with land-based measurements and models to evaluate the unique off-shore environment that promotes ozone production. Ozone measurements and failings of the model predictions will be discussed. Recorded Oct. 14, 2015.
Kevin Hansen, Management and Marketing
The quality of care in nursing homes has been evaluated from many perspectives, but few studies have analyzed quality in light of complaints made to state survey agencies by residents, their family members, or other individuals interacting with the nursing home. This presentation will focus on analyses of complaints to survey agencies, investigations of these complaint allegations, and complaint-related deficiency citations issued to facilities, and will highlight their effect on the quality of care in nursing homes. The presentation will also address facility and resident-aggregated factors that may aid in a better understanding of quality in nursing homes and how to improve the care for residents. Recorded Sep. 30, 2015.
Kate Wilson, Health Services
Come learn about the health of our students! Last spring we conducted the National College Health Assessment with our students. Now we have a beautiful data set of their health behaviors - exercise behaviors, mental health, drug/alcohol use. This session will provide an overview of students' health behaviors. We would love to share the data set with faculty/staff interested in using it for research projects. Recorded Sep. 23, 2015.
Peter Hart-Brinson, Sociology
It is well known that U.S. public opinion about same-sex marriage is liberalizing, at least in part through generational change, but the exact cultural reasons for the trend are unknown. This talk presents an analysis of the metaphors that two cohorts Midwestern Americans us to talk about homosexuality and same-sex marriage. Results show that younger and older cohorts differ in the metaphors and analogies that they use to talk about same-sex marriage, and that these metaphors indicate fundamental differences in whether they imagine homosexuality as identity or as behavior. These metaphors both express and create social generational change. Recorded Feb. 4, 2015.
Laura Suppes, Watershed Institute
Enteric pathogens in pool water can be unintentionally ingested during swimming, increasing the likelihood of acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI). AGI cases in outbreaks are more likely to submerge their heads than non-cases, but an association is unknown since outbreak data are self-reported. In this study, head submersion in pool water was observed and analyzed for associations with pool water ingestion. Recorded Oct. 29, 2014.