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HTML Coding

Basics of Web Publishing: Special Characters

Note: The HTML pages are out-of-date and will not be updated.

HTML codes use special characters including the left bracket (<), right bracket (>), ampersand (&), and quote (") to represent certain attributes (starting a tag, ending a tag, etc.). In order for you to be able to visually present these characters, you need to use special referencing. Also, you may occasionally need to use extended characters, which are characters not found on the keyboard, such as those used in foreign languages (like the ñ used in many Spanish words).

Two formats can be used to do this--code number (character reference) and phonetic reference (entity reference). Although the entity reference is commonly used for special characters, it is better to use character reference with extended characters because not all browsers recognize entity references.

For a complete listing of codes, check out the University of Toronto's

Character Listing at:

Entity Listing at:

return to topCommonly Used Special Characters

Symbol Character Codes Entity Codes
Less Than (<)
Greater Than (>)
Ampersand (&)
Quote (")
Copyright Symbol (©)
Registered Trademark (®)
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