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HTML Coding

Basics of Web Publishing: Formatting Basics

Note: The HTML pages are out-of-date and will not be updated.

HTML documents can contain a variety of text formatting options, similar to the formatting done with a word processor. For an HTML document however, you need to enter codes for the specific formatting you want. The computer then reads these codes and performs the formatting. In most cases a code must be entered to turn the formatting on and to turn the formatting off. With many HTML editor programs you can type in the code or make a toolbar or menu selection to enter the codes. Some editors also have keyboard shortcuts for commonly used codes.

return to topText Formatting

Generally text is unformatted in your Web documents. However, to emphasize specific letters, words, or phrases you can use some text formatting options including boldfacing and italicizing. Depending on your browser, you may also be able to add underlining to emphasize characters. The following examples show the code for boldfacing and italicizing.

<B>This is bold.</B>
<STRONG>This is also bold.</STRONG>

<I>This is italics.</I>
<EM>This is also italics.</EM>

Why two codes for bold and italic?

There are two types of codes--physical and logical--that can be used for some text formatting elements. Physical codes (<I>, <B>) describe the specific text formatting. Logical codes (<STRONG>, <EM>) describe the type of text formatting.

The Formatting Options page includes information for manipulating the font size (a feature available with some web browsers). If you are trying to add special characters, like the copyright symbol (©), you may need to include the entity or character reference.

return to topHeading Styles

Heading styles are used to emphasize different levels of information in Web documents. Heading style level one (H1) is the largest. The phrase "formatting basics" at the top of this page is an example of heading one. Heading styles range from level one (the largest) to the level six (the smallest). In addition to the font size, heading styles also include boldfacing and/or italicizing and some paragraph spacing.

Text Formatted as Heading Level
with Code Sample
Text Formatted as Heading Level
with Code Sample

Heading 1

<H1>Heading 1</H1>

Heading 4

<H4>Heading 4</H4>

Heading 2

<H2>Heading 2</H2>

Heading 5

<H5>Heading 5</H5>

Heading 3

<H3>Heading 3</H3>

Heading 6

<H6>Heading 6</H6>

return to topBreaks

The break codes are used to indicate a new paragraph or the new start of a new line. The paragraph code (<P>) starts a new line of text and leaves a blank line between the paragraphs. The line break (<BR>) code starts a new line but does not leave a blank line.

Paragraph Break

These two sentences will show how inserting a paragraph break here &LT;P&GT;

will affect the text. Note the extra line inserted between the lines.

Line Break

These two sentences will show how inserting a line break here&LT;BR&GT;
will affect the text. Note that there is no extra line inserted between the lines.

return to topHorizontal Rule

<hr / > will create the line you see below.

Additional options for the horizontal rule are available.

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