Apps and Resources
If you would like to talk with a health care provider about your sleep, please make an appointment at Student Health Service.
Smart phone apps to help you sleep better:
- SleepyTime - Bedtime Calculator: Helps you decide what time you should go to bed to get enough sleep.
Genius: Helps you find your ideal bedtime, provides a relaxation
program, and has a progressive alarm that slowly wakes you up.
- Calm - Meditate, Sleep, Relax: Teaches meditation, breathing exercises, and provides nature sounds and scenes.
- Relax Melodies - Sleep Sounds: Has 52 sleep sounds and white noise
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I):
- Online Programs:
- SHUTi: 6-week online program with weekly CBT-I strategy and learning sessions personalized to you. Each session takes 25-45 minutes to complete.
- CBT for Insomnia:
5-week online program with weekly sessions with personalized feedback.
- App available on smart phone:
- CBTI Coach: Free a on iOS and android. This app helps you learn about sleep, develop positive sleep routines, and improve sleep environments.
Helpful websites about sleep:
If you would like to read more about any of these sleep topics discussed on these pages, feel free to browse the references below.
American Addiction Centers. (n.d.). Long-term effects of heavy Adderall use. Retrieved from http://americanaddictioncenters.org/adderall/long-term-effects/
Austin, E. (2008). Addressing sleep deprivation in college students. The American Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 12(6): 34-45.
Bertisch, S. M., Wells, R. E., Smith, M. T., & McCarthy, E. P. (2012). Use of relaxation techniques and complementary and alternative medicine by American adults with insomnia symptoms: results from a national survey. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 8(6): 681-691.
Brown, F. C., Buboltz, W. C., & Soper, B. (2002). Relationship of sleep hygiene awareness, sleep hygiene practices, and sleep quality in university students. Behavioral Medicine, 28: 33-38.
Brzezinski, A., Vangel, M. G., Wurtman, R. J., Norrie, G., Zhdanova, I., Ben-Shushan, A., & Ford, I. (2005). Effects of exogenous melatonin on sleep: A meta-analysis. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 9(1): 41-50. doi: 10.1016/j.smrv.2004.06.004
Buysse, D. J., Reynolds, C. F., Monk, T. H., Berman, S. R., & Kupfer, D. J. (1989). The Pittsburgh sleep quality index: A new instrument for psychiatric practice and research. Psychiatric Research, 28(2): 193-213.
Caldwell, K., Harrison, M., Adams, M., & Triplett, T. (2009). Effect of Pilates and taiji quan training on self-efficacy, sleep quality, mood, and physical performance of college students. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 13: 155-163. doi: 10.1016/j.jbmt.2007.12.001
Crowley, S. J. & Eastman, C. I. (2015). Phase advancing human circadian rhythms with morning bright light, afternoon melatonin, and gradually shifted sleep: can we reduce morning bright-light duration? Sleep Medicine, 16: 288-297. doi: 10.1016/j.sleep.2014.12.004
De Bruin, E. J., Bogels, S. M., Oort, F. J., & Meijer, A. M. (2015). Efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia in adolescents: a randomized controlled trial with internet therapy, group therapy, and a waiting list condition. Sleep, 38(12): 1913-1926. doi: 10.5665/sleep.5240
Dekker, K., Benjamins, J. S., Van Straten, A., Hofman, W. F., & Van Someren, J. W. (2015). Effectiveness of internet-supported cognitive behavioral and chronobiological interventions and effect moderation by insomnia subtype: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial. Trials, 16: 292.
Dewan, K., Benloucif, S., Reid, K., Wolfe, L. F., & Zee, P. C. (2011). Light-induced changes of the circadian clock of humans: increasing duration is more effective than increasing light intensity. Sleep, 34(5): 593-599.
Espie, C. A., Luik, A. I., Cape, J., Drake, C. L., Siriwardena, N., Ong, J. C. … Kyle, S. D. (2016). Digital cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia versus sleep hygiene education: the impact of improved sleep on functional health, quality of life and psychological well-being: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials, 17(257). doi: 10.1186/s13063-016-1364-7
Fang, R. & Li, X. (2015). A regular yoga intervention for staff nurse sleep quality and work stress: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 24: 3374-4479. doi: 10.1111/jocn.12983
Gellis, L. A., Park, A., Stotsky, M. T., & Taylor, D. J. (2014). Associations between sleep hygiene and insomnia severity in college students: Cross-sectional and prospective analyses. Behavior Therapy, 45: 806-816.
Green, A. (2013). Yoga for sound slumber. Alive: Canada’s Natural Health & Wellness Magazine, 368: 63-67.
Harmat, L., Takacs, J., & Bodizs, R. (2008). Music improves sleep quality in students. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 62(3): 327-335. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2008.0402.x
Hershner, S. D. & Chervin, R. D. (2014). Causes and consequences of sleepiness among college students. Nature and Science of Sleep, 6: 73-84. doi: 10.2147/NSS.S62907
Hirokawa, K., Nishimoto, T., & Taniguchi, T. (2012). Effects of lavender aroma on sleep quality in healthy Japanese students. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 114(1): 111-122. doi: 10.2466/13.15.PMR.114.1.111-122
Huang, L. B., Tsai, M. C., Chen, C. Y., & Hsu, S. C. (2013). The effectiveness of light/dark exposure to treat insomnia in female nurses undertaking shift work during evening/night shift. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 9(7): 641-646. doi: 10.5664/jcsm.2824
Jespersen, K. V., Koenig, J., Jennum, P., & Vuust, P. (2015). Music for insomnia in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 8. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD010459.pub2
Kloss, J. D., Nash, C. O., Horsey, S. E., & Taylor, D. J. (2011). The delivery of behavioral sleep medicine to college students. Journal of Adolescent Health, 48: 553-561. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2010.09.023
Kloss, J. D., Nash, C. O., Walsh, C. M., Culnan, E., Horsey, S., & Sexton-Radek, K. (2016). A “sleep 101” program for college students improves sleep hygiene knowledge and reduces maladaptive beliefs about sleep. Behavioral Medicine, 24(1): 48-56. doi: 10.1080/08964289.2014.969186
Kurdi, M. S. & Muthukalai, S. P. (2016). The efficacy of oral melatonin in improving sleep in cancer patients with insomnia: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. Journal of Palliative Care, 22: 295-300.
Lack, L., Wright, H., Kemp, K., & Gibbon, S. (2005). The treatment of early-morning awakening insomnia with 2 evenings of bright light. Sleep, 28(5): 616-623.
Lankhan, S. E. & Kirchgessner, A. (2012). Prescription stimulants in individuals with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Misuse, cognitive impact, and adverse effects. Brain Behavior, 2(5): 661-677. doi: 10.1002/brb3.78
Lillehei, A. S., Halcon, L. L., Savik, K., & Reis, R. (2015). Effect of inhaled lavender and sleep hygiene on self-reported sleep issues: A randomized controlled trial. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 21(7): 430-438. doi: 10.1089/acm.2014.0327
Mastin, D. F., Bryson, J., & Corwyn, R. (2006). Assessment of sleep hygiene using the Sleep Hygiene Index. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 29(3): 223-227. doi: 10/1007/s10865-006-9047-6
Mayo Clinic Staff. (2014). Prescription sleeping pills: What's right for you? Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/insomnia/in-depth/sleeping-pills/art-20043959?pg=1
Mayo Clinic Staff. (2016). Insomnia. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/insomnia/home/ovc-20256955
Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. (2014). Good night, sleep tight: get better sleep without taking a pill. Mayo clinic Health Letter. Retrieved from http://healthletter.mayoclinic.com/secure/subscribeOptions.cfm?f=1
Meletis, C. D. & Zabriskie, N. (2008). Natural approaches for optimal sleep. Alternative and Complementary Therapies, 14(4): 181-188.
National Sleep Foundation. (n.d.). Insomnia. Retrieved from https://sleepfoundation.org/insomnia/home
NHS Choices. (2015). Insomnia –treatment. Retrieved from http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Insomnia/Pages/Treatment.aspx
Norell-Clarke, A., Jansson-Frojmark, M., Tillfors, M., Hollandare, F., & Engstrom, I. (2015). Group cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia: Effects on sleep and depressive symptomatology in a sample with comorbidity. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 74: 80-93. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2015.09.005
Oxtoby, J., Sacre, S., Lurie-Beck, J. (2013). The impact of relaxing music on insomnia-related thoughts and behaviours. Australian Journal of Music Therapy, 24: 67-86.
Quan, S. F., Anderson, J. L., & Hodge, G. K. (2013). Use of supplementary internet based education program improves sleep literacy in college psychology students. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 9(2): 155-160.
Taylor, D. J., Grieser, E. A., Tatum, J. I., & Roane, B. M. Epidemiology of insomnia in college students: relationship with mental health, quality of life, and substance use difficulties. Behavior Therapy, 44: 339-348.
Todd, J. & Mullan, B. (2013). The role of self-regulation in predicting sleep hygiene in university students. Psychology, Health, & Medicine, 18(3): 275-288.
Trockel, M., Manber, R., Chang, V., Thurston, A., & Tailor, C. B. (2011). An e-mail delivered CBT for sleep-health program for college students: Effects on sleep quality and depression symptoms. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 7(3): doi: 10.5664/jcsm.1072
Velex, J. C., Souza, A., Traslavina, S., Barbosa, C., Wosu, A., Andrade, A. ... & Williams, M. A. (2013). The epidemiology of sleep quality and consumption of stimulant beverages among Patagonian Chilean college students. Sleep Disorders. doi: 10.1155/2013/910104
Van Maanen, A., Meijer, A. M., van der Heijden, K. B., & Oort, F. J. (2016). The effects of light therapy on sleep problems: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 29: 52-62. doi: 10.1016/j.smrv.2015.08.009
Zachariae, R., Lyby, M. S., Ritterband, L. M., & O’Toole, M. S. (2015). Efficacy of internet-delivered cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia – A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 30: 1-10. doi: 10.1016/j.smrv.2015.10.004