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Research and Supporting Documentation


Response to Intervention


Allington, R. L. & Walmsley, S. L. (2007). No quick fix: Rethinking literacy programs in America’s elementary schools. New York: Teachers College Press.

Source addresses several components and strategies of RTI.  While range on the subject is broad, it pays special attention to evaluating monetary investments into RTI programs and ensuring their effectiveness.

Allington, R. L. (2009). What really matters in response to intervention research-based designs. Boston: Pearson.

Bender, W. & Shores, C. (2007). Response to intervention: A practical guide for every teacher. United States: Corwin Press, Inc.

Source presents Key concepts of RTI strategies to educators unfamiliar with such programs.  Includes chapters dedicated to both frequently asked questions about such programs and explanations of how RTI benefits students from challenged backgrounds.

Brown-Chidsey, R. & Steege, M. (2005). Response to intervention: Principles and strategies for effective practice. New York:  Guilford Press.

This book provides a comprehensive guide to implementing school-wide RTI programs.  Also focuses on connecting the requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act to educators and RTI programs, and presents a 10-step model for integrating RTI approaches with learning-disabled students.

Burns, M. & Gibbons, K. (2008). Implementing response-to-intervention in elementary and secondary schools: Procedures to assure scientific-based practices. United States: Taylor & Francis Group.

Source provides school-based practitioners with steps on how to develop programs to heighten student performance in the classroom.  Book examines why RTI succeeds or fails and highlights strategies for implementation.

Burns, M., Jimerson, S. & VanDerHeyden, A. (2007). Handbook of response to intervention: The science and practice of assessment and intervention. United States:  Springer.

This material focuses on how to identify students in need of RTI program assistance and the implementation of such a program in the classroom.  The main focus of the source is on how to monitor the success of such a program and show instructors why various models of such programs succeed or fail.

Eaton, M. & Kemp, K. (2007). RTI: The classroom connection for literacy. Port Chester: National Professional Resources, Inc.

Material designed to assist teachers in implementing RTI strategies in the classroom. The book focuses on how to evaluate the effectiveness of RTI programs and where and how to improve them.  Includes biographical references.

Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L. & Vanghn, S. (2008). Response to intervention: A framework for reading educators. United States: International Reading Association.

This source describes a three-tiered approach that includes analyzing effective instruction of children, a variety of tutoring approaches, and reformed conceptualization of special education.  Target audience of educators and scholars.

Fullan, M. (2007). The new meaning of educational change, fourth edition. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University.

Source examines flaws and crutches of educational programs in The US.  Compares America’s educational programs with that of countries overseas. The author puts forth suggestions of what we can learn from our neighbors, ideas of how to save floundering American educational practices, as well as how to improve underperforming ones.

Giuliani, G. & Pierangelo, R. (2007). Frequently asked questions about response to intervention. United States: Corwin Press.

This step-by-step novel outlines the basic concepts of RTI and its importance in the classroom.  It also discusses how to monitor and improve the success of such a program.  Equally suited for general and special education.

Haager, D., Klingner, J. & Vaughn, S. (2007). Evidence-based practices for response to intervention. United States: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Company.

This source presents research data collected by experts in the field of reading education and addresses the issue of how to identify and support struggling students before they fall behind.  The material focuses on the three-tiered approach and how to apply it to children.  Book is noted for having a diverse array of tactics for which to supplement standard RTI programs.

Hall, S. (2008). Implementing response to intervention: A principal’s guide. United States: Corwin Press.

This guide focuses on RTI implementation in middle schools.  Highlights include action plans for putting an RTI program into motion and emphasizing the importance of the role of administrators in the creation and substance of such a program.

Harry, B. & Klinger, J. (2006). Why are so many minority students in special education?  Understanding race and disability in schools. New York: Teachers College Press.

Johnson, E. & Mellard, D. (2008). RTI: A practitioner's guide to implementing response to intervention. United States: Corwin Press.

Material describes suggested methods of how to implement an RTI program in academic environments and focuses on the three tiers of RTI.  Includes Index, FAQ section, and site-based examples and case studies.

McCormack, R. & Paratore, J. (2005). After early intervention, then what? Teaching struggling readers in grades 3 and beyond. United States: Prentice Hall PTR.

This source focuses on the use of RTI strategies and programs for students beyond 2nd grade levels. Designed for educators, this text shares and explores effective methods employed by teachers to back up its analysis of continued RTI programs.

Shapiro, E. (2004). Academic skills problems: Direct assessment and intervention, third edition. New York: Guilford Press.

Source offers an analysis of common academic programs and suggestions on how to implement such a program in schools.  Book's focus is on assessment and intervention.

Styfco, S. & Zigler, E. (1986). Head start and beyond: A national plan for extended childhood intervention. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Book examines three major federal programs for disadvantaged children and discusses how these programs should be implemented.  Strategies suggested cover a wide range of ages and abilities.

Wright, J. (2007). RTI toolkit: A practical guide for school. Port Chester: National Professional Resources, Inc.

This source contains information on how to set up and present an RTI program in a school.  After presenting steps to implement such a program, the text refers readers on steps to extend and evolve the program, as well as evaluate its effectiveness.  It also refers teachers to outside resources to be consulted should such a program prove ineffective.



Canter, A., Klotz, B. & Cowan, K. (2008, February) Responses to intervention: The future for secondary schools. Principal Leadership, 9(2), 12-16.

East Central School District in MN fears that students will not pass 11th grade math exam, as a result RTI practices are implemented in grade 8 with some success. RTI is described in detail. RTI identifies students before they end up classified special education. As a result, the district hopes to use RTI to reduce the imbalance of low SEC and minority students in SPE.  Effective components of an RTI program are reviewed.

Dorn, L. & Schubert, B. (2008). A comprehensive intervention model for preventing reading failure: A response to intervention process. WSRA Journal, 47(3), 51-63.

This article explains how a Comprehensive Intervention Model is an effective RTI method. The article gives an in-depth overview of legislation on RTI as defined in recent revisions to IDEA. The article outlines critical components of RTI and discusses its tiered design. The authors then suggest their interpretation of RTI in order to take into account challenges poor readers face including unlearning inappropriate responses, taking giant leaps to catch up, and maintaining gains after intervention has ceased. Their approach is centered on interventions that are more dynamic and interactive with differing degrees of intensity for meeting students’ needs. The Comprehensive Intervention is introduced with a “two waves of literacy defense” with one wave at k-3rd grades and another from 4-12th grades. The authors then explain how Comprehensive Intervention provides teachers with a framework for aligning and managing interventions across the school system that include small group interventions and individual interventions. The article also overviews a few case studies that show a positive replication of Comprehensive Intervention.

Fuchs, D. & Fuchs L. S. (2006). Introduction to response to intervention: What, why and how valid is it? Reading Research Quarterly, 41(1), 93-99.

This article talks about how at-risk students are selected and monitored for RTI. The article explains RTI’s multi-tiered approach to intervention and goes on to explain why there is a need for RTI. This includes reducing the cost of special education for the increase of LD students. The article openly criticizes the IQ achievement discrepancy approach as it is a model perpetuating “wait-to-fail” in order to get LD status and services. RTI aims to decrease the amount of children incorrectly identified as disabled. The article finishes by explaining limitations and unanswered issues of RTI including children that are incorrectly identified for special services and how to clearly measure and define students in order for reliable diagnoses.

Johnson, E. S. & Smith, L. (2008, January/February). Implementation of response to intervention at Middle School Counsel for Exceptional Children. Teaching Exceptional Children, 40(3), 46-53.

Middle school is a changing time for students. This in conjunction with LDs, language acquisition, and increased academic demands, it is no surprise that students need a variety of supports in place to help them succeed. RTI provides research-based methods for accurately identifying student needs in a timely fashion. An RTI program at Cheyenne Mountain Junior High is described. The implementation of the RTI program at this school reveals significant benefits to students. Challenges are also identified.

Mceneaney, J. E., Lose, M. K. & Schwartz, R. M. (2006). A transactional perspective on reading difficulties and response to intervention. Reading Research Quarterly, 41(1), 117-128.

The article defines differences in viewpoints of literacy educators and special educators. Literacy educators have a broader “transactional” perspective that views reading difficulty as a result of social factors and instructional contexts whereas special educators view disabilities within readers themselves. The article stresses that disabled readers cannot be lumped into categories and that the current discrepancy approach (based on LD labeling on normal curve statistics) does not do enough to resolve reading difficulties. The article posits that instead of being preoccupied with identifying disabilities, educators should be attending to the ways instruction can build on variability of readers. The article presents a variation on RTI called “contingent teaching” which rejects traditional diagnostic practice and disability labeling, focusing instead on how a child learns being contingent on how a teacher teaches. The contingent teaching model calls for more individual tutoring and extensive professional development of teachers.

Samuels, C. A. (2008). Embracing ‘response to intervention’. Education Week, 27(20), 22-24.

This article explains the RTI method and Iowa’s principles for RTI. The author presents a case study of Lynnville-Sully Elementary School in Sully, Iowa and its implementation of RTI. Challenges the school has faced with RTI are briefly mentioned within the article. Collaborative efforts by teachers, special educators, and administration are mentioned as well as types of screening and data collection for students in need of RTI.

Zirkel, A. Perry & Krohm, N. (2008, January/February). RTI after IDEA. Teaching the Exceptional Child, 40(3), 71-73.

Faced with rising pressure to find ways to balance the racial make–up of the students in SPE, many schools have turned to RTI. IDEA requires that schools use one of three techniques for determining eligibility for a SPE and RTI is seen by many (and favored by the authors of IDEA) to be the best way to satisfy this requirement. Since IDEA went into effect October 12, 2006, the included chart displays its effectiveness.


Relevant Items:

RTI pamphlet inside

Preparing All Education Personnel to Address Barriers to Learning & Teaching

Higher Education Initiative Report Form

Universal Screening Within an RTI Model

RTI PowerPoint 1 (Dimock)

RTI PowerPoint 2 (Parman)

RTI PowerPoint 3 (Long)

RTI PowerPoint 4 (Cady)

RTI PowerPoint 5 (Dimock)

RTI: Deconstructing the Model Lesson (Thorsen)

RTI: What Teachers Need to Know (Thorsen)

Progress Monitoring Resources

About Learning: A Learning-Style Website

IES Practice Guide: RTI for Elementary and Middle School Mathematics



Culturally Congruent Pedagogy


Coming Soon!



Association of Wisconsin School Administrators (2009, February). A test for unconscious bias and unintentional racism. Marshall Memo, 269. Retrieved February19th, 2009 from The Marshall Memo on the WorldWideWeb:


Association of Wisconsin School Administrators (2009, February). Changing low expectations about student learning. Marshall Memo, 269. Retrieved February19th, 2009 from The Marshall Memo on the WorldWideWeb:


Day-Hairston, B. & Day-Vines, N. (2005). Culturally congruent strategies for addressing the behavioral needs of urban, African American male adolescents. Professional School Counseling, 8(3), 236-243.

This article addresses the disproportionally high rates of disciplinary measures for African Americans, and investigates the connection between these measures and cultural differences.  Article is written for school counselors to understand common logic and ethics in African American society so as to guide their ability to relate to their charges.

Hassouneh, D. (2008). Reframing the diversity question: challenging eurocentric power hierarchies in nursing education. Journal of Nursing Education, 47(7), 291-292.

This article presents commonly discovered barricades for increasing the levels of racial and ethnic minority nurses at all levels of education.  In addition to reviewing the cause-and-effect relationship that these issues spring from, the article proposes suggestions on how to eliminate or lessen the negative effects that they create in nursing and health demographics.

Parsons, E., Travis, C., & Simpson, J. (2005). The black cultural ethos, students’ instructional context preferences, and student achievement: An examination of culturally congruent science instruction in the eight grade classes of one African American and one euro-american teacher. Negro Educational Review, 56(2/3), 183-204.

This article discuses how the use of culturally congruent teaching strategies can and have been used to enhance the performance levels of African American students.  The article cites many studies used to gather data for the article and backs up its observations with the research findings of a number of educational studies.

Quaye, S. & Harper, S. (2007). Faculty accountability for culturally inclusive pedagogy and curricula. Libral Education, 93(3), 32-39.

Article addresses the challenges of racial minorities in fitting in in predominantly white school and university environments.  The tendency of these conditions to create feelings of cultural displacement, confused identity, and academic dysfunction are brought to the surface of the article and poetic remedies and supports are put forth.

Wing, C., Kohnert, K., Pham, G., Cordero, K., Ebert, K., Kan, P. & Blaiser, K. (2007). Culturally consistent treatment for late talkers. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 29(1), 20-27.

Article examines the cultural influences and conditions that both cause and potentially cure 2-3 year old children with underdeveloped language skills.  An emphasis is also put on the need for professionals to understand the links between early language development and later achievement issues, and potential correction measures.


Relevant Items:

Leveling the Playing Field & Raising African American Students' Achievement

The Power of the Subconsious Mind (deKoven)

CI: Learning Cycle Lesson Plan Form

Cultural Proficiency Notes

Lens of Lesson Planning Chart

Bridging Cultures Framework

Essential Domains of Culturally Relevant Teaching

Dreamkeepers' Culturally Relevant Instruction

Cultural Competence

NCCRESt Module 2: Culturally Responsive Pedagogy and Practice

Strategies to Support Culturally Competent Instruction

Teacher's Guide to Diversity (PDF)

Prison Project Lesson Plan & Rubric