9. Characteristics, distribution and
migration of human populations
A) Predict trends in the spatial distribution of population on Earth, e.g.,
develop and defend hypotheses on how
a. the spatial distribution
of population may change in response to environmental changes;
b. the spatial distribution of population may change in
response to sociocultural changes;
changes in the spatial distribution of population may result in changes in
social and economic conditions.
B) Analyze population issues and propose policies to address such issues, e.g.,
a. evaluate past and present
government policies designed to change a country's population
b. explain how government population policies are linked to economic and
c. describe the reasons why a government's
population policy may be opposed by the people.
C) Explain the economic, political, and social factors that contribute to
human migration, e.g.,
a. how human mobility and
city/region interdependence can be increased and regional integration can by
facilitated by improved transportation systems;
how international migrations are shaped by push and pull factors;
c. why countries develop emigration and immigration policies.
D) Evaluate the impact of human migration on physical and human systems, e.g.,
a. describe how mass migrations
have affected ecosystems;
b. describe how large-scale, rural-to-urban
migration affects cities;
c. describe the socioeconomic changes that occur in
regions that gain population and those that lose population.
and migration of cultural mosaics
A) Compare the role that culture places in incidents of cooperation and
a. identify the cultural factors that have promoted
b. identify the cultural characteristics that link
c. explain how Americans would have to adjust to living
and working in foreign countries.
B) Analyze how cultures influence the characteristics of regions, e.g.,
a. analyze demographic data;
b. compare the economic opportunities for women in
c. describe the relationship between patterns of
in-migration and cultural change in large urban and manufacturing centers
(especially near international borders).
C) Explain how cultural features often define regions, e.g.,
a. Identify the human characteristics that make
specific regions of the world distinctive;
b. Explain the importance of religion in identifying a
c. Explain why great differences can exist among
culture regions within a single country.
D) Investigate how transregional alliances and multinational organizations
can alter cultural solidarity, e.g.,
a. explain the adaptation of non-governmental
organizations (NGSs) to different cultural contexts;
b. identify and map changes in the nature of selected
international partnerships and alliances;
c. predict how evoloving political and economic
alliances affect the traditional cohesiveness of culture regions.
E) Explain the spatial process of cultural convergence and divergence, e.g.,
a. describe how communications and transporation
technologies contribute to cultural convergence
b. analyze technologies may stimulate cultural
c. evaluate examples of the spread o culture traits
that contribute to cultural convergence.
Patterns and networks of
A) Classify and describe the spatial distribution of major economic systems
and evaluate their relative merits in terms of productivity and the social
welfare of workers, e.g.,
a. describe the characteristics
of traditional, command and market economic systems and describe how such
systems operate in specific countries;
b. use multiple points of view to evaluate the
advantages and disadvantages of different economic systems;
c. identify geographic problems in the transition
period as a country shifts from one economic system to another.
B) Identify and evaluate the spatial aspects of economic systems, e.g.,
a. identify market areas around major
b. explain how market areas are examples of functional
c. explain shy some places have locationa advantages as
assembly and/or parts distribution centers.
C) Analyze the relationships between various settlement patterns, their
associated economic activities, and the relative land values, e.g.,
a. analyze the spatial relationships
between land values and prominent urban features;
b. explain the spatial relationships between the zoned
uses of land and the value of that land;
c. relate economic factors to the location of
particular types of industries and businesses.
D) Identify and analyze the historical movement patterns of people and goods
and their relationships to economic activity, e.g.,
a. analyze the spatial patterns of
early trade routes in the era of sailing ships;
b. discuss the land-use patterns that resulted in a
system of monoculture;
c. compare global trade routes before and after the
development of major canals and develop. hypotheses to explain the changes
that occurred in world trade.
E) Analyze and evaluate international economic issues from a spatial point
of view, e.g.,
a. explain how land values in an
area may change owing to the investment of foreign capital;
b. formulate reasoned arguments regarding the causes
and geographic consequences of an international debt crisis;
c. evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of
allowing foreign-owned business to purchase land, open factories, or conduct
of other kinds of businesses in a country.
Processes, patterns, and
functions of human settlement
A) Analyze the functions of cities, e.g.,
a. analyze the site and situation of
selected cities in different regions of the world;
b. explain how the functions of cities differ from
those of towns and villages;
c. explain how the functions of present-day cities
differ from those of cities in earlier times.
B) Analyze the internal structure and shape of cities, e.g.,
a. use aerial photographs,
topographic maps, and census data to learn about land uses in a city and
speculate about the city's primary function within its region;
b. analyze and compare the shapes of cities to identify
factors that influence urban morphology;
c. identify those ways in which a city has remained the
same for many years and those ways in which it has changed.
C) Classify the characteristics of settlements in developing or developed
D) Describe the nature, causes, and geographic impact of change in urban
E) Evaluate the physical and human impacts of emerging urban forms in the
present-day world, e.g.,
Forces of cooperation and
A) Analyze how cooperation and conflict influence the development and
control of social, political, and economic entities on Earth, e.g.,
a. explain how cooperation and/or
conflict can lead to the allocation of control of Earth's surface;
b. identify the causes of boundary conflicts and
internal disputes between culture groups;
C) Explain how external forces can conflict economically and politically
with internal interests in a region, e.g.,
a. describe how new technologies, new
markets, and revised perceptions of resources act as agents of change in a
b. explain how a country's ambition to obtain markets
and resources can cause fractures and disruptions in areas of the world
that are targets of its ambition;
c. illustrate how religious conflict can cause
political and cultural changes in a region.