A Resource for Internet Activities to meet NCTM curricular standards in probability for grades 6 - 12.

In 1989 the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics
published *Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics*, a document
which displayed a vision of what mathematics education in the United States must strive to
become. Among the curricular features called for in grades 9-12 was that
probability, statistics, and discrete mathematics play a larger role. In order
for these experiences in grades 9-12 to be the most meaningful and valuable to these
students, an exploratory background in these three areas is essential. Mathematics
curriculum in grades 6-8 therefore should include these types of experiences for all
students.

Our goals for this project were 1) to find appropriate activities and
resources available on the internet to effectively integrate probability, statistics, and
discrete mathematics into 5-8 and 9-12 classrooms and 2) to create a reference directory
of these activities and resources which communicates how we would use them to meet NCTM's
curricular standards in probability for grades 5-12. In order to meet these
standards, we must open ourselves up to new methods of learning and teaching. By
using these activities, mathematics teachers can effectivley integrate technology into
classrooms, expose students to nonroutine probability problems, and create active and
cooperative learning environments. We view this web site as dynamic--that is, our
preferred activities are not set in stone, and we expect to continuously update our
directory based on classroom experiences.

**NCTM Standards / Grades 6-8: ****Curricular Features**

(pp. 66-67)

- Problem situation context, with an emphasis on the application of concepts to real-world problems. Relevance to students' lives is an ongoing theme.
- "Communication with and about mathematics and mathematical reasoning"
- Broad range of topics that are taught as connected ideas rather than distinct and unrelated areas.
- Technology should be integrated to direct students toward problem solving, reasoning, and content. Less of an emphasis is placed on pencil-and-paper computation. Students should become experienced and proficient in using calculators, computers, videos, etc.

**NCTM Standards / Grades 9-12: Curricular Features - Key Points**

(pp.123-136)

- Core curriculum tha extends through all four grades in order "to provide a common body of mathematical ideas accessible to all students."
- Broad and flexible curriculum "consistent with accelerating changes in today's society" and tailored to meet the individual needs of all students.
- Continuing progression towards a growing and deepening knowledge base leading to a synthesis of knowledge rather than a set of detached facts.
- Emphasis away from "memorization of isolated facts and procedures and by proficiency with paper-and-pencil skills" and an emphasis towards "conceptual understandings, multiple represntations and connections, mathematical modeling, and mathematical problem solving."
- Focus on graphical representations through the use of technology (computers and/or graphing calculators).
- A larger role played by statistics, probability, and discrete mathematics.

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (1989). *Curriculum and Evaluation
Standards for School Mathematics. *Reston, VA: The National Council
of Teachers of Mathematics, Inc.

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (2000). *Principles and
Standards for School Mathematics. *Reston, VA: The National Council
of Teachers of Mathematics, Inc.
Principles and
Standards for School Mathematics

Click here to go to the NCTM web page.

The following pages detail NCTM's curriculum standards for data analysis and probability and provide links to probability web pages. We have also outlined how these pages can be used to meet the standards. You are able to select a standard and link to activities which can be used to meet it.

- NCTM 6-8 Data Analysis and Probability Standards
- NCTM 9-12 Data Analysis and Probability Standards
- Go to our Activity Summaries & Suggestions