American Astronomical Society: Offers many grants, prizes, and awards. Grants include small research (up to $7,000) and international travel.
American Physical Society: Offers prizes, awards, and fellowships to recognize outstanding achievements in research, education and public service.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration - Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES): Includes solicitations for many research programs, including Origins of the Solar Systems, Planetary Geology and Geophysics, Planetary Astronomy, and Near Earth Object Observations.
National Science Foundation: Exists as an independent federal agency created by Congress in 1950 "to promote the progress of science; to advance the national health, prosperity, and welfare; to secure the national defense." Programs include:
- Astronomical Sciences: Supports research in all areas of astronomy and astrophysics and related multidisciplinary studies. Modes of support include single-investigator and collaborative awards, as well as funding for acquisition and development of astronomical instrumentation, technology development for future ground-based facilities, and educational projects that leverage the Division's research investments to build research and workforce capacity and to increase scientific literacy.
- Physics: Supports fundamental research across the intellectual frontiers of physics, to support research that has broader impacts on other fields of science and on the health, economic strength, and defense of society, to enhance education at all levels and share the excitement of science with the public through integration of education and research, and to steward the physics community so as to maintain the intellectual capital essential for future advances. Modes of support include single investigator awards, group awards, centers and institutes, some interdisciplinary in nature, and several national user facilities, as well as research equipment/instrumentation development grants.
Research Corporation - Cottrell College Science Awards: Single or Multi-Investigator (2-3 faculty) awards available. Funds research in astronomy, chemistry, physics, and closely related fields at predominantly undergraduate institutions. The overall goal is to provide seed funding for significant research that will enhance the professional and scholarly development of beginning faculty. Awards range from $35,000 to $100,000.