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This unit addresses Wisconsin DPI Social Studies Content Standard (History) Historical Era and Theme #6: “The Growth of Industrialization and Urbanization, 1865-1914”

This unit also addresses the following Wisconsin DPI Performance Standards:

Social Studies:


Geography

A.8.1 Use a variety of geographic representations, such as political, physical, and topographic maps, a globe, aerial photographs, and satellite images, to gather and compare information about a place

A.8.4 Conduct a historical study to analyze the use of the local environment in a Wisconsin community and to explain the effect of this use on the environment

A.8.7 Describe the movement of people, ideas, diseases, and products throughout the world

A.8.8 Describe and analyze the ways in which people in different regions of the world interact with their physical environments through vocational and recreational activities

A.8.10 Identify major discoveries in science and technology and describe their social and economic effects on the physical and human environment

History

B.8.1 Interpret the past using a variety of sources, such as biographies, diaries, journals, artifacts, eyewitness interviews, and other primary source materials, and evaluate the credibility of sources used

B.8.4 Explain how and why events may be interpreted differently depending upon the perspectives of participants, witnesses, reporters, and historians

B.8.7 Identify significant events and people in the major eras of United States and world history

B.8.8 Identify major scientific discoveries and technological innovations and describe their social and economic effects on society

B.8.10 Analyze examples of conflict, cooperation, and interdependence among groups, societies, or nations

Economics

D.8.2 Identify and explain basic economic concepts: supply, demand, production, exchange, and consumption; labor, wages, and capital; inflation and deflation; market economy and command economy; public and private goods and services

D.8.3 Describe Wisconsin's role in national and global economies and give examples of local economic activity in national and global markets

D.8.4 Describe how investments in human and physical capital, including new technology, affect standard of living and quality of life

D.8.7 Identify the location of concentrations of selected natural resources and describe how their acquisition and distribution generates trade and shapes economic patterns

D.8.8 Explain how and why people who start new businesses take risks to provide goods and services, considering profits as an incentive

D.8.10 Identify the economic roles of institutions such as corporations and businesses, banks, labor unions, and Federal Reserve System

Behavioral Science

E.8.4 Describe and explain the means by which individuals, groups, and institutions may contribute to social continuity and change within a community

E.8.5 Describe and explain the means by which groups and institutions meet the needs of individuals and societies

Technology:


Media and Technology

A.8.4 Use a computer and communications software to access and transmit information

A.8.5 Use media and technology to create and present information

A.8.6 Evaluate the use of media and technology in a production or presentation

Information and Inquiry

B.8.1 Define the need for information

B.8.2 Develop information seeking strategies

B.8.4 Evaluate and select information from a variety of print, nonprint, and electronic

B.8.6 Interpret and use information to solve the problem or answer the question

Independent Learning

C.8.4 Demonstrate self-motivation and increasing responsibility for their learning

The Learning Community

D.8.1 Participate productively in workgroups or other collaborative learning environments

Each lesson addresses urbanization or industrialization in the following manner:

Lesson One: What is industry?
This lesson helps students examine the broad concepts of industry, types of industry, and aspects necessary for a successful industry. Photograph analysis of lumbering in the Chippewa Valley is the lens through which students will learn about industry and industrialization in general.

Lesson Two: Technology & production processes increase efficiency
This lesson examines two major themes of the second industrial revolution, innovation and increasing efficiency, by looking at the success of the Wisconsin lumber industry and the Chippewa Falls mill due to improvements in mill processes and mill technology –mainly by looking at the different kinds of saws used over time.

Lesson Three: Big business & local industry
This lesson shows students how big business is made from small business at the local level. Even the largest lumber baron, Frederick Weyerhaeuser, recognized that strong local leadership (William Irvine) and local industry was the foundation on which his industry and his big business success stood. This lesson examines these themes as well as how big business worked during this time period through the lens of the Chippewa Lumber & Boom Company, Frederick Weyerhaeuser, and William Irvine. By looking at this local example, students will understand larger business concepts and strategies and how big business is a direct result of local industries.

Lesson Four: Local business, individuals, & community
This lesson takes a closer look at the relationships between local businesses, individuals, and community. By looking at William Irvine’s role in the community and comparing it to lumber baron Frederick Weyerhaeuser, students will see more clearly the need that the captains of industry had for local individuals. This lesson also looks at an infamous national controversy in which William Irvine became involved and provides an opportunity to analyze newspapers for bias and historical perspectives.

Lesson Five: Industry & innovation builds community
This lesson takes a look at the impact the lumber industry had on Chippewa Falls, illustrating the larger theme of the impact that companies and industries had on towns in the larger, national story. By analyzing a variety of maps and advertisements, students can clearly make connections between these large themes and both local and national stories.

Background about the Local Story


For excellent background information on the Chippewa Lumber & Boom Company, visit the University of Wisconsin –Eau Claire, Center for History Teaching and Learning

For a general history of Chippewa Falls with a focus on the lumber industry and William Irvine, watch the video entitled The Life & Legacy of William Irvine. This 50 minute video is not professional in production quality, but it may serve as a very nice introduction to this teaching unit.

For other resources please see “Additional Resources” on page 13.



Machines


Lesson 1: What is Industry?


Introduction:
This lesson helps students examine the broad concepts of industry. It looks at types of industry and aspects necessary for a successful industry. Photograph analysis of lumbering in the Chippewa Valley is the lens through which students will learn about industry and industrialization in general.

Time Required: 1 class period (45 minutes)

Objectives:

  • Students will be able to make observations, conclusions, and questions from analyzing photographs.

  • Students will be able to discuss what industry is and what makes industry work, processes of industrialization

Required Materials:

  • Chippewa Valley Lumbering PowerPoint

    • Copy of Chippewa Valley Lumbering Photographs to be handed out to students. To obtain these, print the PowerPoint slides.

    • Teacher notes for Photographs. You may want to print these notes from the PowerPoint before the lesson.

      • Printing Directions: To print these slides, open PowerPoint then go to the file tab in the upper left and scroll down to print. A new window will open, and where it says “Print what” select Slides. If you only want to print certain slides, on the “Print range” section select Slides and enter the slide number(s) desired. Teachers will want to print the notes pages for each PowerPoint prior to teaching with it. To do this, follow the directions above, except where it says “Print what” select Notes Pages.

  • Photograph Analysis Worksheet (optional)

Procedure:

  1. Write the word “Industry” on the board. Have students brainstorm what this word means and examples of industries by coming up to the board and writing other words. Discuss their ideas as a class, and discuss some of the major industries evolving during the second industrial revolution. [Some industries with major advances during the second industrial revolution include: steel, chemicals, transportation (railroads, ships, automobiles, and airplanes), energy (electricity and oil), etc.]

  2. Ask students why they think some industries are successful and grow. You may want to bullet these ideas on the board as the class discusses them. (profitable idea, strong leader, demand for products, good company organization and management, innovations, increasing size and efficiency, sufficient capital, successful marketing, good location with readily available resources and transportation routes, labor forces, competition, etc.)

  3. Hand out one or two Chippewa Valley Lumbering Photograph(s) to each students / partners and provide a few minutes for students to analyze the photo(s). You may want to provide students with a photograph analysis worksheet or have students use a piece of loose-leaf paper on which they try to answer who, what, when, where, why, how, and any other conclusions they may be able to make or questions they have from looking at the photo.

  4. Discuss the PowerPoint. For each slide, have the student(s) who were given the shown photograph share with the class their observations. Then ask the rest of the class if they have additional observations. Discuss how this photograph helps to tell the story of lumbering in the Chippewa Valley as well as the story of industry in the nation. (See PowerPoint notes).

  5. To close the lesson, refer back to procedure step 2. You can review these ideas as a class, or have students do some reflective writing on these ideas, on today’s activities, and on what they learned during this lesson. You may wish to give time at the end of the lesson to do this, and/or may give it as an assignment.

Assessment:

  • Class participation

  • Closure activity



Men Working

Lesson 2: Technology & production processes increase efficiency


Introduction:
This lesson examines a major theme of the second industrial revolution: innovation. During this time period, many industries were able to grow, expand, and increase in efficiency as a result of either new inventions or improvements on existing innovations and technology. Efficiency also increased during this time as a result of changes in the way products were produced. Industries created new processes for production including, but not limited to, the assembly line. This lesson teaches these themes by looking at the success of the Wisconsin lumber industry and the Chippewa Falls mill due to improvements in mill processes and mill technology –mainly by looking at the different kinds of saws used over time.

Time Required: 1 class period (45 minutes)

Objectives:

  • Students will be able to understand how technology increases efficiency

  • Students will be able to understand how the process of production improves efficiency speeds up production

  • Students will be able to see how different kinds of resources can help to tell a story

Required Materials:

  • Mill Technology & Processes PowerPoint

    • Pictures of each type of saw to display. Print PowerPoint slides 2-4.

    • Copy of desired slides to be handed out to students. To obtain these, print the PowerPoint slides.

    • Teacher notes for PowerPoint. You may want to print these notes from the PowerPoint before the lesson.

Procedure:

  1. As a class, brainstorm why changes would be made in the way a factory produces an item. (consumer demand, new inventions / innovations, increase efficiency, lack / surplus of resources including natural resource, capital, and labor, etc.)

  2. Display pictures of the three types of saws and have the students vote on which was used in saw mills first, second, and third. Write these votes on the board. –This will motivate students to take greater interest in learning about the saws.

  3. Discuss the PowerPoint. (See PowerPoint notes).

  4. To close the lesson, refer back to procedure steps 2: Discuss what students learned compared to how they voted. Discuss how changes in saw mill technology (types of saws) increased efficiency. Refer back to procedure step 1: Discuss how these same principles (especially processes of production) apply to other industries, perhaps by discussing Ford and the automobile industry.

  5. Assignment: Have the students write a ½ page on another industry for class tomorrow indicating how this industry has changed in at least one of the ways discussed in class.

Assessment:

  • Class participation

  • Assignment



4Horses

Lesson 3: Big business & local industry


Introduction:
This lesson shows students how big business is made from small business at the local level. During the second industrial revolution numerous industries expanded, some at alarming rates turning some entrepreneurs into large scale “capitalists,” “industrialists,” “captains of industry,” “business magnates,” “business tycoons,” or “robber barons,” depending on the perspective with which they are studied. Yet, for all of these large figures, there are countless smaller figures that play essential roles. Even the largest lumber baron, Frederick Weyerhaeuser, recognized that strong local leadership (William Irvine) and local industry was the foundation on which his industry and his big business success stood.

Another piece of this puzzle lies in understanding how businesses work. At the national level this time period is also famous for the rise of corporations, monopolies, and new business strategies.

This lesson examines these themes through the lens of the Chippewa Lumber & Boom Company, Frederick Weyerhaeuser, and William Irvine. By looking at this local example, students will understand larger business concepts and strategies and how big business is a direct result of local industries.

Time Required: 1 class period (45 minutes)

Objectives:

  • Students will understand how big business is directly tied to local industry

  • Students will be able to analyze a chart to compare captains of industry and understand origins of corporate America

  • Students will be able to analyze various written documents to understand historical and cultural perspectives

Required Materials:

  • Big Business & Local Industry PowerPoint

    • Copy of desired slides to be handed out to students. To obtain these, print the PowerPoint slides.

    • Teacher notes for PowerPoint. You may want to print these notes from the PowerPoint before the lesson.

Procedure:

  1. Have each student write down the names of five people whom they think became very rich during this time period. Give students a few moments to compare lists or share some of their ideas as a class.

  2. Ask the students why / how these people became rich. Did they do it on their own or were there many people involved to help make them successful?

  3. Discuss the PowerPoint. (See PowerPoint notes).

  4. To close the lesson, have students share with a partner then with the class which resource / part of the PowerPoint they liked looking at the most from this lesson and why. This will also provide an opportunity to recap the main points illustrated by each.

Assessment:

  • Class participation

*You may wish to hand out for homework the background information for Lesson 4. This is a one page document titled Conflict at Cameron Dam.


 

Lumber And Boom Ad

Lesson 4: Local business, individuals, & community


Introduction:
All big businesses are extensions of what happens at the local level. This lesson takes a closer look at the relationships between local businesses, individuals, and community. By looking at William Irvine’s role in the community and comparing it to lumber baron Frederick Weyerhaeuser, students will more clearly see the need that the captains of industry had for local individuals.

* You may wish to hand out the “Conflict at Cameron Dam” document as an assignment for students to read before coming to class for this lesson. It will provide background information and make going through these slides more of a review / clarification rather than totally new information for the students.

Time Required: 1 class period (45 minutes)

Objectives:

  • Students will be able to analyze newspapers to understand historical perspectives and recognize bias

  • Students will be able to understand the how individuals can play a major role in a community

Required Materials:

  • Conflict at Cameron Dam document –one for each student (optional)

  • Local business, individuals, & community PowerPoint

    • Copy of desired slides to be handed out to students. To obtain these, print the PowerPoint slides.

    • Teacher notes for PowerPoint. You may want to print these notes from the PowerPoint before the lesson.

  • Copies of document analysis worksheet –one for each student. Make these double-sided if you wish to have students do more than one newspaper analysis

  • Copies of newspaper article(s) for students to analyze

Procedure:

  1. Have students brainstorm individuals whom they know have been important in their city’s history and share how / why these individuals have been important / what kind of an impact they have had on the community.

  2. Discuss the PowerPoint. (See PowerPoint notes).

  3. To close the lesson, pose these questions to the students to be shared with the class, in small groups, or individually with reflective writing: Why do you think the battle at Cameron dam became a national sensation? What would they have done about this situation if they were in William Irvine’s position? If you were in Irvine’s situation when lumbering in this area was nearing an end would you have stayed or would you have gone when other companies offered you a position? If you were in Irvine’s position, would you have given back to the community like he did? How?

Assessment:

  • Class participation



Stock Certificate


Lesson 5: Industry & innovation builds community


Introduction:
During the second industrial revolution towns grew and urbanization developed as a result of industry. As innovations and new production processes helped industries, these industries often also had a great impact on their communities. Some communities were company towns created almost entirely by the company itself. Other industries simply brought people to the town looking for work. Some towns dissolved when the industries ended or moved on. Other towns lived on and continued to show the impact the industry had on them.

This lesson takes a look at the impact the lumber industry had on Chippewa Falls.

Time Required: 1 class period (45 minutes)

Objectives:

  • Students will be able to analyze maps and advertisements
  • Students will understand how industries impact communities

Required Materials:

  • Industry & innovation builds community PowerPoints Parts 1 & 2 –this lesson’s PowerPoint has been split into two PowerPoints

    • You may choose to make copies of selected maps, advertisements, or photographs to be handed out to students. To obtain these, print the PowerPoint slides you desire.

    • Teacher notes for PowerPoint. You may want to print these notes from the PowerPoint before the lesson.

  • Copies of map analysis worksheets –one for each student

  • Double-sided copies of advertisement analysis worksheets –one for each student

Procedure:

  1. Start class by showing the first map on the PowerPoint. Pass out the map analysis worksheets. Have students analyze this map as a class without help form the teacher. After they have finished, discuss their findings and provide additional information. (See PowerPoint notes).

  2. As you continue to discuss the PowerPoint, prompt the student to share what they have noticed about the differences between each map. (See PowerPoint notes).

  3. Once you get to the advertisement slide, pass out an advertisement analysis worksheet to each student.

  4. Once you get to the photograph slides, ask the students what they think these have to do with this story.

  5. To close the lesson, have students reflect on the community today. Do they notice any ways in which the community still reflects the impact of industry? Are there any companies still around today that were around during this time period? (Mason Shoe, Leinenkugels’ Brewery, NSP-now Xcel energy…)

Assessment:

  • Class participation

Ideas for Assessment

  • The closure activity to each lesson could easily be turned into an assignment or activity for assessment.

  • Each lesson contains numerous primary sources to be analyzed. Teachers can always choose a source for students to analyze on their own or with a partner for assessment. The use of primary sources when teaching history is to teach both content and skills; therefore, students can be assessed on both content and skills by analyzing and interpreting sources.

  • Medium-sized project: Since almost all of the concepts in the unit relate to industry both on the local and national levels, students could be assigned a company or person to research before the unit starts. They research background on this company or person before the unit starts so that they are able to contribute more to class discussions based on their knowledge. During the unit, students will then have to come up with at least 5 ways in which what they learned in the lessons relates to their company / person.

  • Large-sized project: Students create a mock company. For each day’s lesson, students will have to write down in a company journal, what they learned and how it applies to their business. In the process, students will be writing down details about their product(s) and all of the other aspects of industry and innovation learned in this unit. The directions for what to write can be as guided as the teacher prefers from having a premade journal with questions to simply giving time at the end of each lesson to write about the ideas discussed in class.

    At the end, students will have to create an advertisement for their company that presents the company, its product, how the product is made, and how the product is sold. If desired, after viewing the ads students could vote on business awards such as “product I’m most likely to buy,” “most creative product,” “most useful product,” “best explanation of how product is made,” “best improvements on innovation,” “best company name,” “best product name,” “most visually attractive advertisement,” “best sales ideas,” “company most likely to succeed,” etc.

Suggestions for Grade Level Adaptations

This unit, although designed with 8th grade students in mind, is easily adaptable for a variety of grade levels simply by selecting the desired sources to analyze and by changing the amount of guidance for the activities. There are a variety of resources and exercise in this unit designed specifically to provide teachers with numerous options. Teachers in the higher grades would probably want to go more in depth with the activities and have a greater number of student-led activities. Teachers in the lower levels would probably have more teacher-guided introduction of the skills and practice as a class. In the lower levels, the expectations for the conclusions students are able to make would also be more basic. The closure activities and assessment options would also vary with grade level; however, they also have been designed to be easily adaptable for a range of learning levels.

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